Chemical Bonding


The bonds formed to connect the atoms in a molecule are called chemical bonds. Such bonding is called chemical bonding. These bonds include both weak intermolecular forces or strong intramolecular interactions.

Types of chemical bonding:

  • Ionic bond
  • Polar bond
  • Covalent bond

Ionic chemical bonding:

The chemical bonds created between a metal and a non-metal element is called ionic chemical bonding. Ions are defined as the atoms where the number of electrons is not equal to the number of protons. When the electrons in the outside shell are shared between the two elements, one element will have a strong pull on the shared electron.

Example of Ionic bond:

This type of bond exists in table salt or sodium chloride. Its molecular formula is NaCl. The bond is formed between sodium (metal element) and chloride (non-metal element). To break this bond, dissolve sodium chloride in water.

Polar chemical bonding:

A covalent bond between two atoms where the electrons that form the bond are distributed unequally is called a polar bond. This results in a slight dipole moment in the molecule.

Example of Polar bond:

This type of bond exists in a water molecule. Its molecular formula is H2O. A water molecule has a polar bond. The electronegativity value of hydrogen is 2.20 whereas that of oxygen is 3.44. The water mole has a bent shape as there is an unequal electron distribution. The oxygen “area” of the molecule has a net negative charge, and the two hydrogen atoms area has a net positive charge.

Example of covalent bond:

An example for a covalent bond is methane. Its molecular formula is CH4. The electronic configuration of carbon is 2,4. It requires 4 more electrons in its outer shell and it can be like the noble gas neon. To achieve this one carbon atom shares four electrons with one electron from four hydrogen atoms.

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